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HIST 241: The Amputation of U.S. Arms

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HIST 241 Essay: Question No. 10

Pacifists vs. Patriots on How to Avoid a Second World War; Or, The Amputation of U.S. Arms

March 27, 2020

In the years following World War One, the United States and the world’s leading countries began negotiating arms limitations for European powers. All agreed to prevent a second world war; all disagreed on the means. Joining these leaders for the first time in history with significant political power were the newly enfranchised American women. However, a thick, bitter and political line ran between the two major women’s political organizations, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) and the Women’s International League of Peace and Freedom (WILPF), simultaneously crippling women’s potential power during the decade while sparking diverse and productive dialogue across the country and world.

The Washington Armament Limitation Conference was to be held in 1921 to discuss disarmament. This was the stage on which the ladies prepared to silently fight. On the surface, the conference “marked a shift from a system of opposing defense alliances that caused the outbreak of World War I to a multilateral treaty system designed to avert the emergence of competing power blocs.”[1] But beyond that, it was the ultimate opportunity for the DAR to flex their metaphorical muscle; to establish their traditional values, i.e., patriotism, national security, and isolationism; and to stand up as a strong but polite counterpart to the male patriotic political groups of the early 20th century. The Daughters were keenly aware of their influence and the power with which they led millions of American members: President General Anne Rogers Minor instructed her sheep: “Let us try to keep cool heads and a sane, calm attitude, and impart them to others… Every argument there is, is against war, yet we cannot argue war out of existence, nor end it by disarmament…Peace must come before disarmament.”[2] One might note here that the U.S. played a pretty minor role in World War One in terms of fighting— it cannot be the loss of life or any intense sort of economic destruction that is at the root of this fierce patriotism and isolationism. If not this, then what? Waldo H Heinrichs, Jr. in his review of Peter Dingman’s Power in the Pacific, says, “Dingman makes it abundantly clear that political power is an inescapable factor in arms limitation.”[3] Could this also be the case for the women activists of the twenties?

The point then seems to be, for the DAR, not about European disarmament but about American armament. The problem then was that the DAR “had previously refrained from purely political activities, instead devoting themselves to promoting patriotic celebrations and erecting monuments and markers to honor Revolutionary forefathers.”[4] In fact, leader Rose Moss Scott chastised small DAR chapters for merging with other philanthropies/organizations, claiming this confused and defiled the DAR’s true goals. First and foremost, she claimed, the Daughters were patriots, whose duties were to further the patriotic agendas of their oft-named ancestors: “Both in spirit and in purpose the Daughters of the Revolution should be true to the heritage of oppor-tunity which was theirs through the devotion, patriotism, and heroism of those whom they have succeeded.”[5] Why then the sudden exception? It may have been the stirring spirit of American patriotism; it may have been eagerness to exert their newfound power. It may have even been insecurity and anxiety over the way that the war played out; a fear of Germany; a fear of the loss of authority. As President Minor said, “Pacifism is willing to see the world stand defenseless before a nation that is still obsessed with the passion of militarism and the policy of ‘blood and iron.’ The world cannot yet dispense with the police.”[6] For whichever reason, the traditional DAR was dead, and the women’s voices grew louder in its stead.

The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, headed by Jane Addams, former leader of the Woman’s Peace Party, believed differently. The women of the WILPF thought that peace could not be achieved in a militaristic world, and they called for complete disarmament. The WILPF’s arguments were just as fierce as those of the DAR—perhaps fiercer—and were complex in nature, calling “governments to realize the intimate connection between armaments and the serious economic and industrial difficulties with which all the world is faced to-day.”[7] Spread across Europe and the States, the WILPF had an international advantage and quite a following —the barren and recently demolished European countries certainly would take a liking to the WILPF’s peacetime dialogue. According to LoCasto and Sklar, The Civilian and the Military by Arthur A. Ekirch, Jr. “provides information about the presence of the military in American life and the public’s varying reactions from the Revolutionary era through World War II.”[8] Ekrich argues that events after WWII provided “little hope of any sudden return to real peacetime modes of living,” resulting in a surge of pacifism; however, Ekrich ultimately concludes that it is “difficult to believe that the society of the future will be governed by the antimilitarist traditions that (have) guided three centuries of American history.”[9] Nonetheless, the women of the WILPF began to thrive; soon was released their Manifesto of Disarmament.

The manifesto details a particularly sensitive victim of the destruction which militancy brings; i.e., America’s billfold. In the document, the WILPF illustrates the economic downfalls of war and “the wasteful and devastating expenditure on military force which is impoverishing the world and debasing international relations.”[10] Meanwhile, members of the DAR were avidly celebrating the loot and glory which war brings (at least, that is, for the exceptional and undefeated U.S.A.) and on which warhorse-sentimentality they built their platform in the first place. This is illustrated in their magazine’s October 1918 issue, in which they spent a total of eighteen pages on war medals: their beauty, their tradition, and their glory.[11] Beyond print, the DAR fulfilled many calls to patriotic activism. For example, in the April 1918 edition of  The DAR Magazine, the group broadcast their promotion and funding of young women to serve the military as farmers and “to teach maimed and crippled soldiers and sailors who thus will not be obliged to leave their homes to receive instruction in ambidextrous work, chair-caning, weaving on looms, modeling and pottery work, and enable them to earn a livelihood”—quite literally supporting the troops; thus, supporting militancy.[12]

Ironically, between these two vastly different women’s groups, there was mutual celebration over the result of the Washington Conference which produced a relatively moderate decision on arms limitation, but this celebration was the eye of the political hurricane. There followed immediate tension—most notably, the DAR began openly accusing the WILPF of a socialist and/or communist agenda; the accusation was catastrophic to the WILPF’s reputation because it was during the Red Scare of 1919-20. The Scare already had the country in a frenzy: “May Day riots in several major US cities, summer race riots in others, the Boston Police Strike in September, followed by the…coal strike heightened animosity against socialists and radicals who were already held to be pariahs because of their pacifist stance during World War I.”[13] A very brief but very revealing correspondence between DAR member Helen C. Travis and Addams not only shows sympathy between the polarized sides but the failings of 1920s journalists. Travis consoles Addams: “I note the [Chicago] Tribune has taken a policy of ignoring [rumors about the WILPF] altogether.”[14] This biased gap in journalistic policy could only serve to increase polarization and cheat the WILPF out of a chance to speak against, or even to confirm, the rumors, while the DAR had their very own national magazine—the equivalent of a political megaphone—for both offense and defense. One of the most infectious accusations of communism against the WILPF was published by New York Legislature, known as the Lusk report. This extensive report documents the state of socialism and communism in nearly every place in Europe, Russia and America at the time.[15] According to LoCasto and Sklar, however, the writers were later “discredited.”[16]

Further blowing the tension out of proportion, Addams, who, it is revealed, is a member of the DAR, says that the few extreme and accusatory Daughters spoke on behalf of the many silent, moderate members. Addams writes back to Travis, “I too am a member of the D.A.R. and am happy to report that at the National meeting in Washington they refused to condemn the League. I think it is only some of the local chapters that have indulged in this sport.”[17] This misrepresentation coupled with the lack of journalistic mediation and the Red Scare left WILPF nearly defenseless.

On top of that, the DAR began to send out some less-rosy and -cheery patriotic messages: they warned that America had a dire need for self-defense against hostile attacks from other countries—and, worse, attacks from inside the U.S., the “insidious forces now at work within our borders attempting to undermine our Government.”[18] This fear-mongering very effectively framed a victim and attacker; a self and other; an us and them. This is prima facie evidence of the self-injury this caused for women’s political mobility; no such divided nation of women could possibly stand. Members of the DAR continued to lobby vigorously to keep the WILPF meetings and lectures quiet or cancelled. Furthermore, Kim E. Nielsen points out an immensely powerful group of WILPF-enemies and proud DAR-supporters: WWI veterans. “Local opponents of the WILPF—largely World War One veterans who were members of the local American Legion—thought [the WILPF’s] goals were radical, un-American, and outside the realm of female expertise. Instead, they praised women who exercised female citizenship in ways that bolstered community veterans and national military strength.”[19] This critique raises an important point: the members of the WILPF were not only concerned with peace and disarmament. They had an extensive, thought-to-be progressive platform, calling for the “full integration of women into society; a commitment to ‘unity within diversity’” especially because they were headed by the veteran Addams—the radical changes of the decade were already disconcerting to many Americans.[20] Jill Lepore writes, “Beginning in the 1880s, reformers like Jane Addams…had been leading a fight for legislative labor reforms for women, including minimum-wage and maximum-hour laws, and the abolition of child labor…yet each of these Progressive reforms, from social insurance to protective legislation, faced a legal obstacle: their critics called them unconstitutional.”[21] This accusation is reminiscent of the label that the DAR liked to use: ‘un-American’—Simon Wendt argues that the DAR promulgated “liberal commentators and activists [who] repeatedly appropriated this label to express more forcefully their alternative vision of the American nation.”[22] The hits just kept on coming for the WILPF, but, whether to stay true to their philosophy or because they had no opportunity, they did not pose a counterattack.

However, as the DAR’s attacks began to up, Emily Greene Balch, the U.S. WILPF’s Vice-Chairman, fired from professorship at Wellesley College for her pacifist remarks, wanted to clear WILPF’s name. Balch politely wrote a powerful and ambiguous letter to a chapter of the DAR: “[Militant] preparedness does far more to create ill-will and distrust that it can do to protect against the dangers of war—to put the question only on the ground of expediency and safety and not on the ground of morality, Christianity, and principle.”[23] Weaved so gently into such pacifist terms, Balch brought the DAR’s morality and—worse—Christianity into question. This may have been the most aggressive move on behalf of the WILPF—a sign of sure strife between the women’s organizations. But, as often happened with the WILPF, the powerful and personal message rang out largely in silence.

In the climactic release of the DAR’s article, “Dossier on Jane Addams,” the WILPF and their president were veritably ripped to shreds. The Daughters published a list of every socialist and/or communist insinuation against Addams and her organization. “[A]ll her actions have tended toward the strengthening of the hands of the Communists to make for the success of a Communist war in our country,” they wrote.[24] The author painstakingly described every time Addams did not renounce socialism and/or communism, in addition to listing every time a socialist and/or communist or even a socialist- and/or communist-by-association attended a WILPF lecture or conference or general gathering.

And yet, in the thick momentum of all this adversity, there stood up resistance within the DAR, a seeming glimmer of hope. DAR Member I.E. Evans wrote to Addams a letter of defense, saying, “I wish to apologize to Miss Addams for any discourtesy received by her from [the] D.A.R. and will say I am not in sympathy with this attack.”[25] I.E. Evans’ letter is so important because she was one moderate Daughter of many; she exemplifies in one letter the vast, unimaginable potential of a united women’s front, the powerful tower that could have been. The crumbling and burning organizations at hand, spewing at each other in blind ambition, not-naively crazed with the fresh power of enfranchisement, the stupendous opportunity of which still lingered in the air, fell stillborn in their divided clawing for political power. Still, in their remains, one can see hope in that very blatant disproportion of the loud few and the silent many, because the many went on with their jobs and continued their noble responsibilities and continued the good fight in their respective places. Perhaps this is also a sign that the extreme, enticing and dramatic quarrels between polarized groups are not representative of the whole or really of the true issues with which the parties are concerned. Either way, “in World War One, women displayed independence and determination to participate in the public arena,” and perhaps that was enough. [26]

Bibliography

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Catherine E. Marshall to Jane Addams, 5 October 1921, Swarthmore College Peace

Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 14, #243-244, #125), by Catherine E. Marshall. Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998. https://search.alexander

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Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 18, #1307-1315, #1317-1318), by Daughters of the American Revolution. Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998. https://search.alexanderstreet.c

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Magazine, Vol. LII, No. 4, April 1918. The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1918. Retrieved from Hathitrust, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b2873578&view=

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Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 18, #1307-1315, #1317-1318), by Mrs. I. E. Evans. Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organiz-ations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998. https://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/

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Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998. https://search.ale

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1921.) Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998. https://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/work/bibliographic_entity

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1921), 688. Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998. https://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/work/bibliographic

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History, Purpose and Tactics with an Exposition and Discussion of the Steps Being Taken and Required to Curb It, Being the Report of the Joint Legislative Committee Investigating Seditious Activities,” Filed April 24, 1920, in the Senate of the State of New York. J. B. Lyon,, 1920. Web. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/ssd?id=mdp.39015014

148269;page=ssd;view=plaintext;seq=406;num=1526

Nielsen, Kim E. “Dangerous Iowa Women: Pacifism, Patriotism, and the Woman-Citizen

in Sioux City, 1920-1927.” The Annals of Iowa 56, 1997, 80-98. WKU Libraries,

Rupp, Leila J. Book review; no title. Review of Reconstructing Women’s Thoughts: The Women’s

International League for Peace and Freedom before World War II, by Linda K. Schott. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997). The American Historical Review, Volume 104, Issue 2, April 1999, 596–597. WKU Libraries, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/104.2.596

Scott, Rose Moss. “Illinois State History: Daughters of the American Revolution.” Illinois

Printing Company, (Danville, Illinois), 1929, pp. 179. Retrieved from HathiTrust, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=wu.89058637166&view=1up&seq=189 or https://hdl.handle.net/2027/wu.89058637166

Siener, William H. “The Red Scare Revisited: Radicals and the Anti-Radical Movement in

Buffalo, 1919-1920.” New York History 79, no. 1 (1998): 23-54. Accessed March 27, 2020. WKU Libraries, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23182288.

Wendt, Simon. “Defenders of Patriotism or Mothers of Fascism? The Daughters of the American

Revolution, Antiradicalism, and Un-Americanism in the Interwar Period.” Journal of American Studies 47, no. 4 (2013): 943–69. WKU Libraries. doi:10.1017/S00218758130

01321.

Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Manifesto on Disarmament, 1921.

Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 14, #243-244, #125), by Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998). https://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/work

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[1] Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, “Introduction,” Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[2] Anne Rogers Minor, “A Message From the President General,” DAR Magazine (November 1921), Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar. (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[3]Waldo H. Heinrichs, Jr., Review 18; no title, review of Power in the Pacific, by Peter Dingman, The Journal of Asian Studies (Pre-1986), 37(4), 760, 1978, italics added, WKU Libraries, https://login.libsrv.wku.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.libsrv.wku.edu/docview/218123019?accountid=15150.

[4] LoCasto and Sklar. “Introduction,” Pacifism vs. Patriotism.

[5] Rose Moss Scott, “Illinois State History: Daughters of the American Revolution,” (Danville, Illinois: Illinois Printing Company, 1929), pp. 179, retrieved from HathiTrust, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=wu.89058637166&view=1up&seq=189.

[6] Anne Rogers Minor, “A Message From the President General,” DAR Magazine (December 1921), 688, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998). Italics added.

[7] Catherine E. Marshall to Jane Addams, 5 October 1921, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 14, #243-244, #125), by Catherine E. Marshall, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[8] Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, “Bibliography,” Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[9] qtd. in Richard C. Brown, Military Affairs 20, no. 4 (1956): 231. Accessed March 27, 2020. doi:10.2307/1983708.

[10] Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, “Manifesto on Disarmament,” 1921, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 14, #243-244, #125), Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[11] D.A.R., “The War Medals of the Allies,” Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine, Vol.

LII, No. 10, October 1918, The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, (J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1918.) Retrieved from Hathitrust, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b2873578&view=1up&seq=205

[12] D.A.R., “Women to Train as Practical Farmers,” Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine, Vol. LII, No. 4, April 1918, The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, (J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1918), retrieved from Hathitrust, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b2873578&view=1up&seq=205

[13] William H. Siener, “The Red Scare Revisited: Radicals and the Anti-Radical Movement in Buffalo, 1919-1920,” New York History 79, no. 1 (1998): 23-54, accessed March 27, 2020, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23182288.

[14] Helen C. Travis to Jane Addams, 2 May 1924, Jane Addams Papers, Correspondence, Swarthmore College Peace Collection (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel #16, 639-640, 800), by Helen C. Travis, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[15] New York (State), Legislature, and Clayton Riley Lusk, “Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose and Tactics with an Exposition and Discussion of the Steps Being Taken and Required to Curb It, Being the Report of the Joint Legislative Committee Investigating Seditious Activities,” filed April 24, 1920, Senate of the State of New York, J. B. Lyon, 1920, retrieved from HathiTrust, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/ssd?id=mdp.39015014148269;page =ssd;view=plaintext;seq=406;num=1526

[16] LoCasto and Sklar, “Introduction,” Pacifism vs. Patriotism.

[17] Jane Addams to Helen C. Travis, 5 June 1924, Jane Addams Papers, Correspondence, Swarthmore College Peace Collection (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel #16, 639-640, 800), by Jane Addams, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[18] Daughters of the American Revolution to Jane Addams, ca. July 1924, Jane Addams Papers, Correspondence, Swarthmore College Peace Collection (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 16, #958), by Daughters of the American Revolution, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[19] Kim E. Nielsen, “Dangerous Iowa Women: Pacifism, Patriotism, and the Woman-Citizen in Sioux City, 1920-1927,” The Annals of Iowa 56, (1997), 80-98, WKU Libraries, https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=10997&context=annals-of-iowa

[20] Leila J. Rupp, review of Reconstructing Women’s Thoughts: The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom before World War II, by Linda K. Schott, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997), The American Historical Review, Volume 104, Issue 2, April 1999, 596–597,WKULibraries, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/104.2.596

[21] Lepore, Jill. These Truths: A History of the United States. New York: W. W. Norton, 2019, 377.

[22] Simon Wendt, “Defenders of Patriotism or Mothers of Fascism? The Daughters of the American Revolution, Antiradicalism, and Un-Americanism in the Interwar Period,” Journal of American Studies 47, no. 4 (2013): 943–69, WKU Libraries, doi:10.1017/S0021875813001321.

[23] Emily Greene Balch to the Kaskia Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, 10 July 1924, Jane Addams Papers, Correspondence, Swarthmore College Peace Collection (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 16, #956-957), by Emily Greene Balch, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[24] D.A.R., “Dossier on Jane Addams,” Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 18, #1307-1315, #1317-1318), by Daughters of the American Revolution, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[25] I.E. Evans to Jane Addams, ca. February 1927, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 18, #1307-1315, #1317-1318), by I. E. Evans, Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women’s Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military? by Anissa Harper LoCasto and Kathryn Kish Sklar, (Binghamton, NY: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1998).

[26] qtd. in Ellen Condliffe Lagemann, “American Women’s Activism in World War I (Book Review),” Review of “American Women’s Activism in World War I,” by Barbara J. Steinson, The Journal of American History, 1 June 1983, 177–78. Web.

By Ella

I am an undergraduate junior studying creative writing. I am interested in short fiction, poetry, creative nonfiction and professional writing.

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